# Quantum Intelligence with Light:

Building Quantum Large Language Models using Photonic Analog Quantum Computing

# Why Photonic?

Most of the physical implementations of quantum computing require temperature control close to absolute zero Kelvin. A Quantum Processing Unit using Quantum Optics was developed by Xanadu.

Advantages:

- Compatible with the existing communications infrastructure.
- Operates at room temperature.
- Higher dimensional computational space.
- Easy to network and multiplex.
- Low cost for mass production.
- Mountable on smartphones, laptops, and edge devices.

# Why Analog?

## Nature is continuous, not binary.

Nature isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical, and by golly it's a wonderful problem, because it doesn't look so easy.

#### Richard Feynman

Theoretical physicist

We are using the binary system in digital computing because of the ON and OFF switches of transistors. It is a hardware constraint that need not be dragged into the quantum world.

Quantum systems are continuous. In quantum devices for computing, we are free to use the continuous variable logic implemented in Analog Quantum Computing.

## Computational Space: Classical to Quantum

Moving from the computational space consisting of 0 and 1 to the space of infinitely many points gives a huge advantage of encoding and processing information.

The superposition property of quantum states gives inherent parallelism in quantum computing. With the higher dimensional computational space in Analog Quantum Computing, a higher level of parallelism is achieved.

#### Classical

#### Qubit-based

#### Continuous Variable

Wagner function of |0⟩

Wagner function of |1⟩

Wagner function of |2⟩

Wagner function of |3⟩

## Quantum Large Language Model

The building blocks of LLMs are transformers. By replacing the Feedforward blocks with Quantum Neural Networks in transformers, we develop Quantum LLMs.

## Continuous Variable Quantum Neural Network

## Quantum Transformer

## Quantum LLM

## Related Papers

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